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Girl, Interrupted
Girl, Interrupted

Posts : 657
Join date : 2011-08-21
Location : My Mind

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PostSubject: Accepted Disorders:   Accepted Disorders: I_icon_minitimeSun Aug 21, 2011 1:14 pm

Antisocial Behaviors
Agoraphobia can develop out of simple phobias or it can be a result of extreme trauma, although it is often a result of numerous panic attacks such as those found in panic disorder.

Agoraphobia, like other phobias, is made up of extreme anxiety and fear. Different from other phobias, however, is the generalization which occurs. Agoraphobia is the anxiety about being in places where escape might be difficult or embarrassing or in which help may not be available should a panic attack develop. It can be sub diagnosed as either ‘with’ or ‘without’ panic disorder (see above). Typically situations that invoke anxiety are avoided and in extreme cases, the person may never or rarely leave their home.

Avoidant Personality Disorder
Avoidant personalities are often hypersensitive to rejection and are unwilling to become involved with others unless they are sure of being liked. Excessive social discomfort, timidity, fear of criticism, avoidance of social or work activities that involve interpersonal contact are characteristic of the avoidant personality. They are fearful of saying something considered foolish by others; worry they will blush or cry in front of others; and are very hurt by any disapproval by others. People with avoidant personality disorder may have no close relationships outside of their family circle, although they would like to, and are upset at their inability to relate well to others.

Intermittent Explosive Disorder
This disorder is apparently rare, with the majority of cases occurring when the individual is between late adolescence and late twenties. There is some evidence of that the neurotransmitter serotonin may play a role in this disorder.

This disorder is characterized by frequent and often unpredictable episodes of extreme anger or physical outbursts. Between episodes, there is typically no evidence of violence or physical threat.

Kleptomania appears to be much more common in females, but little is understood about the etiology. There is also some association with other disorders such as depression and anxiety.

Kleptomania involves the failure to resist impulses to steal things that are not needed for either personal use or for their monetary value. There is typically anxiety prior to the act of theft and relief or gratification afterward. If the theft is related to vengeance or psychosis, kleptomania should not be diagnosed. (Kleptomania is quite rare, where common shoplifting is not).

Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Like most personality disorders, there are many factors that may contribute to the development of symptoms. Because the symptoms are long lasting, the idea that symptoms begin to emerge in childhood or at least adolescence is well accepted. The negative consequences of such symptoms, however, may not show themselves until adulthood.

The symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder revolve around a pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and sense of entitlement. Often individuals feel overly important and will exaggerate achievements and will accept, and often demand, praise and admiration despite worthy achievements. They may be overwhelmed with fantasies involving unlimited success, power, love, or beauty and feel that they can only be understood by others who are, like them, superior in some aspect of life.

There is a sense of entitlement, of being more deserving than others based solely on their superiority. These symptoms, however, are a result of an underlying sense of inferiority and are often seen as overcompensation. Because of this, they are often envious and even angry of others who have more, receive more respect or attention, or otherwise steal away the spotlight.

Paranoid Personality Disorder
This is a psychiatric diagnosis characterized by paranoia and long-standing suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others. Those with the condition are hypersensitive, are easily slighted, and habitually relate to the world by vigilant scanning of the environment for clues or suggestions to validate their prejudicial ideas or biases. They tend to be guarded and suspicious and have quite constricted emotional lives. Their incapacity for meaningful emotional involvement and the general pattern of isolated withdrawal often lend a quality of schizoid isolation to their life experience.
Reactive Attachment Disorder
This is an inability to react socially in many situations, due to an inability to connect emotionally. There are two forms: Inhibited, in which a person will make little to no contact socially due to the lack of emotional connection to peers, and the disinhibited form, in which over socialization occurs. Because the patient cannot truly attach to a single person, they are often in shallow relationships, or no relationships at all. To be diagnosed as RAD, the symptoms must have begun appearing before the age of five.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Often anxiety gets generalized to other situations, and can then become overwhelming or associated with life in general. Typically GAD develops over a period of time and may not be noticed until it is significant enough to cause problems with functioning.

As its name implies, GAD is evidenced by general feelings of anxiety such as mild heart palpitations, dizziness, and excessive worry. The symptoms are difficult to control for the individual and are not related to a specific event (such as in PTSD) and are not as severe as those found with Panic Disorder.
Social Anxiety Disorder

Social phobia is a persistent and irrational fear of situations that may involve scrutiny or judgment by others, such as parties and other social events.

People with social phobia become overwhelmingly anxious and self-conscious in everyday social situations. They have an intense, persistent, and chronic fear of being watched and judged by others, and of doing things that will embarrass them. They can worry for days or weeks before a dreaded situation. This fear may become so severe that it interferes with work, school, and other ordinary activities, and can make it hard to make and keep friends.

Although many people with social phobia realize that their fears about being with people are excessive or unreasonable, they are unable to overcome them on their own.

Social phobia can be limited to one situation (such as talking to people, eating or drinking, or writing on a blackboard in front of others). Or, it may be so broad (such as in generalized social phobia) that the person experiences anxiety around almost everyone other than family members.

Depression/Suicide Risk
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
The specific cause of this disorder is not known. Some argue that it is itself a symptom of another psychiatric disorder such as those involving psychosis or delusional beliefs.

Preoccupation with a specific body part and the belief that this body part is deformed or defective. The preoccupation is significantly excessive and causes distress or significant impairment in functioning. It is not better explained by another disorder such as dissatisfaction with body shape in anorexia or delusions associated with a psychotic disorder.

Borderline Personality Disorder
Like most personality disorders, there are many factors that may contribute to the development of symptoms. Because the symptoms are long lasting, the idea that symptoms begin to emerge in childhood or at least adolescence is well accepted. The negative consequences of such symptoms, however, may not show themselves until adulthood.

Symptoms are often present in adolescence and almost always by young adulthood. There may be a history of unstable relationships in the person's life and there is a higher than average likelihood of sexual abuse, family violence, and/or neglect in the person's childhood. This disorder is diagnosed much more frequently in females.

The major symptoms of this disorder revolve around unstable relationships, poor or negative sense of self, inconsistent moods, and significant impulsivity. There is an intense fear of abandonment with this disorder that interferes with many aspects if the individual's life. This fear often acts as a self-fulfilling prophecy as they cling to others, are very needy, feel helpless, and become overly involved and immediately attached. When the fear of abandonment becomes overwhelming, they will often push others out of their life as if trying to avoid getting rejected. The cycle most often continues as the individual will then try everything to get people back in his or her life and once again becomes clingy, needy, and helpless.

The fact that people often do leave someone who exhibits this behavior only proves to support their distorted belief that they are insignificant, worthless, and unloved. At this point in the cycle, the individual may exhibit self-harming behaviors such as suicide attempts, mock suicidal attempts (where the goal is to get rescued and lure others back into the individual's life), cutting or other self-mutilating behavior. There is often intense and sudden anger involved, directed both at self and others, as well a difficulty controlling destructive behaviors.

Major Depressive Disorder (Unipolar Depression)
Research has shown that depression is influenced by both biological and environmental factors. Studies show that first degree relatives of people with depression have a higher incidence of the illness, whether they are raised with this relative or not, supporting the influence of biological factors. Situational factors, if nothing else, can exacerbate a depressive disorder in significant ways. Examples of these factors would include lack of a support system, stress, illness in self or loved one, legal difficulties, financial struggles, and job problems. These factors can be cyclical in that they can worsen the symptoms and act as symptoms themselves.

Symptoms of depression include the following:

depressed mood (such as feelings of sadness or emptiness)

reduced interest in activities that used to be enjoyed, sleep disturbances (either not being able to sleep well or sleeping to much)

loss of energy or a significant reduction in energy level

difficulty concentrating, holding a conversation, paying attention, or making decisions that used to be made fairly easily

suicidal thoughts or intentions.

Self-injury and is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue without suicidal intent. The most common form of self-harm is skin cutting but self-harm also covers a wide range of behaviors including burning, scratching, banging or hitting body parts, interfering with wound healing, hair pulling and the ingestion of toxic substances or objects. The motivations for self-harm vary and may be used to fulfill a number of different functions. These functions include self-harm being used as a coping mechanism which provides temporary relief of intense feelings such as anxiety, depression, stress, emotional numbness and a sense of failure or self-loathing. Self-harm is often associated with a history of trauma and abuse including emotional abuse, sexual abuse, drug dependence, eating disorders, or mental traits such as low self-esteem or perfectionism. There is also a positive statistical correlation between self-harm and emotional abuse. For the purposes of Hadley, this is a sub-disorder.

Drug Abuse/Addiction
Anabolic Steroids
"Anabolic steroids" is the familiar name for synthetic substances related to the male sex hormones (e.g., testosterone). They promote the growth of skeletal muscle (anabolic effects) and the development of male sexual characteristics (androgenic effects) in both males and females.

Steroid abuse disrupts the normal production of hormones in the body, causing both reversible and irreversible changes. Changes that can be reversed include reduced sperm production and shrinking of the testicles (testicular atrophy). Irreversible changes include male-pattern baldness and breast development (gynecomastia) in men. In one study of male bodybuilders, more than half had testicular atrophy and/or gynecomastia.

In the female body, anabolic steroids cause masculinization. Breast size and body fat decrease, the skin becomes coarse, the clitoris enlarges, and the voice deepens. Women may experience excessive growth of body hair but lose scalp hair. With continued administration of steroids, some of these effects become irreversible.

Cocaine is presently the most abused major stimulant in America. It has recently become the drug most frequently involved in emergency department visits. It is not a new drug of abuse but is now considered the caviar of recreational drugs. Thus, this distinction is reflected in its description-champagne of drugs, gold dust, Cadillac of drugs, status stimulant, yuppie drug, and others. Street names for cocaine also reflect its appearance or method of use (such as flake, snow, toot, blow, nose candy, her, she, lady flake, liquid lady [a mixture of cocaine and alcohol], speedball [cocaine and heroin], crack, rock). And it can also express its method of preparation, such as freebase. It is more popularly known simply as coke.

Smoking or injecting cocaine results in nearly instantaneous effects. Rapid absorption through nasal tissues makes snorting cocaine nearly as fast-acting. Whatever the method of taking it in, cocaine quickly enters the bloodstream and travels to the brain.

Deep in the brain, cocaine interferes with the chemical messengers -- neurotransmitters -- that nerves use to communicate with each other. Cocaine blocks norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and other neurotransmitters from being reabsorbed. The resulting chemical buildup between nerves causes euphoria or feeling "high." Leaving the user with an increasing sense of energy and alertness, an extremely elevated mood and a feeling of supremacy.

A pharmaceutical drug containing clonazepam, used to treat seizure or panic disorders and involving chemical imbalances in the brain. Klonopin can increase the effects of alcohol and thus should not be taken with alcohol. Klonopin is a habit-forming drug, and is only sold as a prescription to avoid addictions.

LSD (Acid)
LSD, also known as acid, is non-addictive and is well known for its psychological effects which can include altered thinking processes, closed and open eye visuals, synesthesia, a sense of time distortion, ego death, and spiritual experiences. LSD's psychological effects (colloquially called a "trip") vary greatly from person to person, depending on factors such as previous experience, state of mind and environment, as well as dose strength. They also vary from one trip to another, and even as time passes during a single trip.

An LSD trip can have long-term psychoemotional effects; some users cite the LSD experience as causing significant changes in their personality and life perspective. Some psychological effects may include an experience of radiant colors and objects, and surfaces appearing to ripple or "breathe", colored patterns behind the eyes, a sense of time distorting (stretching, repeating itself, changing speed, or stopping), crawling geometric patterns overlaying walls and other objects, morphing objects, a sense that one's thoughts are spiraling into themselves, loss of a sense of identity or the ego (known as "ego death"), and other powerful psycho-physical reactions. Many users experience a dissolution between themselves and the outside world. If the user is in a hostile or otherwise unsettling environment, or is not mentally prepared for the powerful distortions in perception and thought that the drug causes, effects are more likely to be unpleasant than if he or she is in a comfortable environment and has a relaxed, balanced, and open mindset.

Cannabis, a fast-growing, bushy annual with dense, sticky flowers produces the psychoactive THC. It is the most widely used illegal psychoactive and has a long history of medicinal, recreational, and industrial use. In modern times, the drug has been used for recreational, religious or spiritual, and medicinal purposes.
The psychoactive effects of cannabis, known as a "high", may include an altered state of consciousness, euphoria, feelings of well-being, relaxation or stress reduction, increased appreciation of humor, music or art, joviality, metacognition and introspection, enhanced recollection (episodic memory), increased sensuality, increased awareness of sensation, increased libido, creative or philosophical thinking, disruption of linear memory and paranoia or anxiety.

Cannabis also produces many subjective effects, such as greater enjoyment of food taste and aroma, an enhanced enjoyment of music and comedy, and marked distortions in the perception of time and space (where experiencing an up rush of ideas from the bank of long-term memory can create the subjective impression of long elapsed time, while a clock reveals that only a short time has passed). At higher doses, effects can include altered body image, auditory and/or visual illusions, and ataxia from selective impairment of polysynaptic reflexes. In some cases, cannabis can lead to depersonalization and derealization; such effects are most often considered undesirable.

MDMA (Ecstasy)
MDMA (3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a synthetic, psychoactive drug that is chemically similar to the stimulant methamphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline. MDMA produces feelings of increased energy euphoria, emotional warmth, and distortions in time perception and tactile experiences.

Methamphetamine, generally called “speed,” “crystal,” “crank,” “ice,” or “tina,” (“shabu” in the Philippines and “yaba” in Thailand) is a potent psycho-stimulant that can be swallowed in pill format orally or delivered via intranasal, injection, or smoking routes of administration.

Prolonged use of meth may result in a tolerance for the drug and increased use at higher dosage levels, creating dependence. Such continual use of the drug, with little or no sleep, leads to an extremely irritable and paranoid state. Discontinuing use of meth often results in a state of depression, as well as fatigue, anergia, and some types of cognitive impairment that last anywhere from two days to several months.

Psilocybin mushrooms are non-addictive although they do create short term increases in tolerance of users. Oral ingestion can sometimes produce nausea, dizziness, and (more rarely) vomiting (usually at higher doses), though cannabis is often used to lessen this stomach discomfort. The greatest danger from recreational use is a "bad trip" which can cause severe emotional and psychological distress. Also, extremely poisonous wild picked mushrooms can be easily mistaken for psilocybin mushrooms. When psilocybin is ingested, it is broken down to produce psilocin, which is responsible for the hallucinogenic effects. As with many psychoactive substances, the effects of psychedelic mushrooms are subjective and unpredictable.

A pharmaceutical drug containing oxycodone, used for the relieving of moderate to severe pain. Brand names for Oxycontin are Endocodone, ETH-Oxydose, M-Oxy, OxyContin, Oxyfast, OxyIR, Percolone, Roxicodone, and Roxicodone Intensol. Because Oxycontin is a habit-forming drug, it is only sold as a prescription drug to avoid addictions. An overdose of Oxycontin can be fatal.

Pathological Gambling
There is an association with risk in pathological gambling, more so than financial gain for most individuals. Individuals diagnosed with this disorder are frequently highly competitive, overly concerned with approval from others and prone to other ‘addictive’ type disorders.

Persistent and maladaptive pattern of gambling which causes difficulties with interpersonal, financial, and vocational functioning.

A pharmaceutical drug containing acetaminophen and hydrocodone. Vicodin brand names are Anexsia, Dolorex Forte, Hycet, Liquicet, Lorcet, Maxidone, Norco, Polygesic, Stagesic, Vicodin, Xodol, and Zydone. This drug is used to relieve moderate to severe pain, and should not be taken with alcohol. The hydrocodone in Vicodin can be habit-forming, and as such is only sold as a prescription to avoid addictions. An overdose of Vicodin can be fatal.

Psychiatric Issues
Anorexia Nervosa
Much research has been completed on this disorder, and results indicate a strong familial undercurrent. Many individuals with Anorexia come from over controlling families where nurturance is lacking. Studies suggest that sexual abuse survivors are more prone to the disorder, as are fraternal twins and first degree relatives of those who have anorexia, the latter suggesting a biological component as well.

Most often diagnosed in females (up to 90%), Anorexia is characterized by failure to maintain body weight of at least 85% of what is expected, fear of losing control over your weight or of becoming ‘fat.’ There is typically a distorted body image, where the individual sees themselves as overweight despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary.

Bulimia Nervosa
Many individuals with Bulimia come from over controlling families where nurturance is lacking. Studies suggest that sexual abuse survivors are more prone to the disorder, as are fraternal twins and first degree relatives of those who have anorexia, the latter suggesting a biological component as well.

The key characteristics of this disorder include bingeing (the intake of large quantities of food) and purging (elimination of the food through artificial means such as forced vomiting, excessive use of laxatives, periods of fasting, or excessive exercise).

Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar Disorder has been broken down into two types: Bipolar I: For a diagnosis of Bipolar I disorder, a person must have at least one manic episode. Mania is sometimes referred to as the other extreme to depression. Mania is an intense high where the person feels euphoric, almost indestructible in areas such as personal finances, business dealings, or relationships. They may have an elevated self-esteem, be more talkative than usual, have flight of ideas, a reduced need for sleep, and be easily distracted. The high, although it may sound appealing, will often lead to severe difficulties in these areas, such as spending much more money than intended, making extremely rash business and personal decisions, involvement in dangerous sexual behavior, and/or the use of drugs or alcohol. Depression is often experienced as the high quickly fades and as the consequences of their activities becomes apparent, the depressive episode can be exacerbated.

Bipolar II: Similar to Bipolar I Disorder, there are periods of highs as described above and often followed by periods of depression. Bipolar II Disorder, however is different in that the highs are hypo manic, rather than manic. In other words, they have similar symptoms but they are not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning and typically do not require hospitalization in order to assure the safety of the person.

Conduct Disorder
Conduct disorder is a psychiatric category marked by a pattern of repetitive behavior wherein the rights of others or social norms are violated. Symptoms include verbal and physical aggression, cruel behavior toward people, destructive behavior, lying, truancy, vandalism, and stealing. Conduct disorder is a major public health problem because youth with conduct disorder not only inflict serious physical and psychological harm on others, but they are at greatly increased risk for incarceration, injury, depression, substance abuse, and death by homicide and suicide.

Delusional Disorder
The cause of delusional disorder is not known. Some studies suggest a biological component due to increased prevalence in first degree relatives of individuals with the disorder.

Non-bizarre delusions including feelings of being followed, poisoned, infected, deceived or conspired against, or loved at a distance. Non-bizarre referred to real life situations which could be true, but are not or are greatly exaggerated. Bizarre delusions, which would rule out this disorder, are those such as believing that your stomach is missing or that aliens are seeking you out to be their leader. Delusional disorder can be subtyped into the following categories: erotomanic, grandiose, jealous, persecutory (most common), somatic, and mixed.

There are many who suggest that unconscious aggressive impulses are transferred to physical complaints and that individuals with this disorder are more likely to misinterpret these symptoms as representing a more serious condition. There is little research which substantiates any particular etiology, however.

Preoccupation with fears of having a serious disease based upon a misinterpretation of bodily sensations. The preoccupation exists despite assurance from a physician that the individual does not have a serious disease.

Narcolepsy is diagnosed when an individual has repeated sudden occurrences of sleep for a period of at least three months. To be diagnosed, at least one of the following must be present: cataplexy (brief episodes of sudden loss of muscle tone) and REM intrusions (REM sleep occurs at unexpected times and results in hallucinations or sleep paralysis). These symptoms can not be the result of another mental disorder, a medical condition, or the use of substances.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Both biological and psychological causes have been found in OCD.

The key features of this disorder include obsessions (persistent, often irrational, and seemingly uncontrollable thoughts) and compulsions (actions which are used to neutralize the obsessions). A good example of this would be an individual who has thoughts that he is dirty, infected, or otherwise unclean which are persistent and uncontrollable. In order to feel better, he washes his hands numerous times throughout the day, gaining temporary relief from the thoughts each time. For these behaviors to constitute OCD, it must be disruptive to everyday functioning (such as compulsive checking before leaving the house making you extremely late for all or most appointments, washing to the point of excessive irritation of your skin, or inability to perform everyday functions like work or school because of the obsessions or compulsions).

Stockholm Syndrome
Stockholm syndrome is a term used to describe a paradoxical psychological phenomenon wherein hostages express adulation and have positive feelings towards their captors that appear irrational in light of the danger or risk endured by the victims.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
By definition, PTSD always follows a traumatic event which causes intense fear and/or helplessness in an individual. Typically the symptoms develop shortly after the event, but may take years. The duration for symptoms is at least one month for this diagnosis.

Symptoms include re-experiencing the trauma through nightmares, obsessive thoughts, and flashbacks (feeling as if you are actually in the traumatic situation again). There is an avoidance component as well, where the individual avoids situations, people, and/or objects which remind him or her about the traumatic event (e.g., a person experiencing PTSD after a serious car accident might avoid driving or being a passenger in a car). Finally, there is increased anxiety in general, possibly with a heightened startle response (e.g., very jumpy, startle easy by noises).
Multiple Personality Disorder/ Dissociative Identity Disorder

Dissociative identity disorder (previously known as multiple personality disorder) is a fairly common effect of severe trauma during early childhood, usually extreme, repetitive physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse.

Dissociative identity disorder is characterized by the presence of two or more distinct or split identities or personality states that continually have power over the person's behavior. With dissociative identity disorder, there's also an inability to recall key personal information that is too far-reaching to be explained as mere forgetfulness. With dissociative identity disorder, there are also highly distinct memory variations, which fluctuate with the person's split personality.

The "alters" or different identities have their own age, sex, or race. Each has his or her own postures, gestures, and distinct way of talking. Sometimes the alters are inanimate objects; sometimes they are animals. As each personality reveals itself and controls the individuals' behavior and thoughts, it's called "switching." Switching can take seconds to minutes to days.

Sexual Degeneracy
Paraphilias (autassassinophilia, exhibitionism, fetishism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, voyeurism, frotteurism, and transvesticism)
Paraphilias are sexual feelings or behaviors that may involve sexual partners that are not human, not consenting, or that involve suffering by one or both partners.
(Note: A person with a Paraphilia does not use these as 'kinks'. They must have their Paraphilia to achieve any form of sexual release.)

Exhibitionism is the exposure of genitals to a nonconsenting stranger. In some cases, the individual may also engage in autoeroticism while exposing himself. Generally, no additional contact with the observer is sought; the individual is stimulated sexually by gaining the attention of and startling the observer.

People with this disorder achieve sexual gratification with the use of objects, most commonly women's under-garments, shoes, stockings, or other clothing items.

Pedophilia involves sexual activity with a child, generally under age 13. The DSM-IV-TR describes a criterion that the individual with pedophilia be over 16 years of age and be at least five years older than the child. Individuals with this disorder may be attracted to either males or females or both, although incidents of pedophilic activity are almost twice as likely to be repeated by those individuals attracted to males. Individuals with this disorder develop procedures and strategies for gaining access to and trust of children.

Sexual Sadism
A sadistic individual achieves sexual gratification by inflicting pain on another person.

In psychoanalytic theory, sadism is related to the fear of castration, while the behaviorist explanation of sadomasochism (the deviant sexual practice combining sadism and masochism) is that its constituent feelings are physiologically similar to sexual arousal. Separate but parallel descriptions are given for sexual sadism and sexual masochism in the DSM-IV-TR. The clinical diagnostic criteria for both are recurrence of the behavior over a period of at least six months, and significant distress or impairment of the ability to function as a result of the behavior or associated urges or fantasies. Either type of behavior may be limited to fantasies (sometimes while one is engaged in outwardly nondeviant sex) or acted out with a consenting partner, a non-consenting partner, or in the case of masochism, alone. Sadomasochism occurs in both males and females, and in both heterosexual and homosexual relationships.

Voyeurism is a paraphilia in which a person finds sexual excitement in watching unsuspecting people who are nude, undressing, or having sex. Voyeurs are almost always male, and the victims are usually strangers. A voyeur may fantasize about having sex with the victim but almost never actually pursues this. The voyeur may return to watch the same stranger repeatedly, but there is rarely any physical contact.

Voyeurs are popularly known as "peeping Toms," based on the eleventh-century legend of Lady Godiva. According to the story, Tom was a tailor who "peeped" at Lady Godiva as she rode naked through the streets of Coventry, England, in a sacrificial act to get her husband to lower taxes. Tom was struck with blindness for not looking away like everyone else.

Individuals with this disorder are gratified by touching or rubbing a non-consenting person. This behavior often occurs in busy, crowded places, such as on busy streets or on crowded buses or subways.

This disorder is characterized by heterosexual males who dress in women's clothing to achieve a sexual response. The activity may begin in adolescence, and in secret; later, as an adult, the man may dress as a woman completely and in public. Not all men who cross-dress are unhappy with their gender, but some are. In a small minority of men with transvestic fetishism, gender dysphoria (unhappiness with original gender) may emerge, and those men may eventually seek hormonal treatments or surgical sex reassignment to enable them to live permanently as women.

Stalking/Obsessive Love
Obsessive love is a form of love where one person is emotionally obsessed with another.

Psychiatrists believe that rejection is the trigger of obsessive love - also known as love addiction or relationship addiction. They state four conditions to help identify it, namely, a painful and all-consuming preoccupation with a real or wished-for lover, an insatiable longing either to possess or be possessed by the target of their obsession, rejection by or physical and/or emotional unavailability of their target, and being driven to behave in self-defeating ways by this rejection or unavailability.

Hypersexuality is characterized by a highly elevated desire for sexual activity. It is only diagnosed when it reaches a problematic level of severity. In many cases it is linked to mania and manic swings caused by bipolar disorder.
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